If you wish to conduct research to validate a translated version, adapt the tool, or perform psychometric testing- please contact: j.hill@keele.ac.uk for permission AND read our Disclaimer for vital information

International STarTBack translations

ResearcherLevel of research Tool links
Raimundo A, Parraca JA, Batalha N, Tomas-Carus P, Branco JC, Hill J, Gusi N

Formal translationPortuguese version
Pierre Rocher

University of Kawzulu-Natal

Informal translation Afrikaans translation
Laura Simons, Elizabeth Carpino, Melissa Pielech, Deirdre Logan, Rachael Coakley, Jonathan Hill

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, USA

Formal translationAdaptation for children & adolescents PPST-with scoring

For children & adolescents to self-administer PPST - to self-administer

Lina Elsabbagh
Formal translation and cross-cultural adaptationArabic translation
Link to article
Freddy Beretta Marcondes

Formal translationBrazilian Portuguese translation
Nidia Espinoza Corvalán
(Dermofunctional Clinic Tobalaba), Claudia Gonzalez Fuster (Dermatofuncional Beauty Corp Clinic),
Catherine Torrealba Cornejo
(Emergency Hospital Public Assistance), Carolina Mera Moreira
(San Jose De Maipo Hospital Complex) - San Sebastián University

Luis Henriquez Fuentes (San Sebastián University) - Universidad de Chile

Formal translation and cross-cultural adaptationChilean Spanish translation
Calvin Kwan

Informal translation Chinese translation
Simeon Grazio

Informal translation Croatian translation
Hanne Albert and Lars Morsoe

Formal translation
Patient face validity, Psychometrics
Danish translation
Link to article
Jasper D Bier-validation lead, j.bier@erasmusmc.nl
Department of General Practice, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and Fysiotherapie Fascinatio, Capelle aan den Ijssel, the Netherlands.
Raymond W J G Ostelo,
Miranda L van Hooff-original translation lead,
Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
Bart W Koes,
Arianne P Verhagen
Formal translation,
Patient face validity and reproducibility
Dutch translation
Link to article
So Teele Kaarma-Tonne
Tartu University Hospital
Formal translationEstonian translation
Jaro Karppinen

Jaro Karpinen@ttl.fi
Informal translation Finnish translation
Christophe Demoulin and Olivier Bruyere

Formal translation, Patient face validityFrench translation
Link to article
Bernhard Aebischer and Sven Karstens
Sven Karstens

Informal translation, Patient face validity, PsychometricsGerman translation
Link to article
EvdokiaBillis, Konstantinos Fousekis, Maria Tsekour, Sofia Lampropoulou, Charalampos Matzaroglou- Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Patras, Patras, Greece, billis@upatras.gr
John Gliatis-Orthopaedic Department, University Hospital of Patras, Greece
Christos Sinopidis-Orthopaedic Department, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Greece
Jonathan Hill-School of Medicine, Keele University, UK
Nikolaos Strimpakos-Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Greece
Formal translation, cross-cultural adaptation and
Greek translation
Link to article
Azimi Parisa

Patient face validityLink to article-Persian
Department of Physiotheraoy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ariel University

Noa Ben-Ami

Formal translation, cross-cultural adaptation and
Hebrew translation
Link to article
Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham,
University Hospitals of Birmingham NHS Trust

Dr Deepak Malik

Informal translationHindi translation
Julia Szita,Laszlo Kiss,Adam Biczo,Katalin Feher,Peter P. Varga &Aron Lazary
National Center for Spinal Disorders, Buda Health Center, Budapest, Hungary
Formal translation, validation and cross-cultural adaptationHungarian translation
Link to article-Hungarian
Firmansyah Purwanto, Physiotherapist, Klinik Halmahera Medika

Informal translationIndonesian translation
Luca Scascighini

Informal translationItalian translation
Peta-Ann Schmidt
University of Witwatersrand
Formal translationisiZulu translation
Link to article
Mika Kawaguchi, Ko Matsudaira

Department of Medical Research & Management for
Musculoskeletal Pain,
22nd Century Medical and Research Center
University of Tokyo

Formal translation, Patient face validity, PsychometricsJapanese translation
Link to article
Da-yeon, Kim

Korea Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Association
Informal translationKorean translation
Shuo Luan, Chao Ma and Shaoling Wu
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital (Primary sponsor), Boji Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and Central Hospital of Guangzhou Panyu District, China

Formal translation, Patient face validityChinese (traditional) translation
Link to article
Led by Saurab Sharma and Riju Maharjan. Questionnaire translations were conducted by Anupa Pathak, Tika Regmi, Jeniya Maharjan, Amit Dangol, Riju MaharjanFormal translationNepali translation
Ingvild Lie Indergaard

Margreth Grotle
Formal translation, Patient face validityNorwegian translation 6-items
Norwegian translation 9-items
Norwegian translation 5-items
Mohsen Abedi and S.J Mousavi

Formal translation, Persian translation
Adrian Chudyk

Research Institute for Primary Care and Health Sciences,
Keele University

Informal translationPolish translation
Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham,
University Hospitals of Birmingham NHS Trust

Dr Deepak Malik

Informal translationPunjabi translation
Vasiliy Tkachenko

Informal translationRussian translation
Narcis Gusi and Borja del Pozo Cruz

Formal translation,
Patient face validity
Spanish translation
Link to article
Carola Betten

Formal translation,
Patient face validity
Swedish translation
Raghu Chovvath
Sri Ramachandra University,Chennai, India

Informal translationTamil translation
Murat Dalkilinc
Turgut Ozal University, Ankara, Turkey

Formal translation,
Turkish translation
Usman Arshad Siddiqi

Informal translation,
Patient face validity
Urdu translation
Rhian LewisInformal translationWelsh translation
C.E Mbada
Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Dr. Olufemi O. Oyewole,
Department of Physiotherapy, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria e-mail: oyewoleye@yahoo.co.uk, oyewoleye@gmail.com
Translation and psychometric evaluationYoruba translation
Link to article-Yoruba
Dorice Adrian Magayane
doriceadrian@gmail.com Department of Physiotherapy, College of Health Sciences
Jomo Kenyatta University University of Agriculture & Technology, Kenya
Formal translationSwahili translation
Link to article-Swahili
Dr Taweewat Wiangkham
Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences Research Unit,
Department of Physical Therapy,
Faculty of Allied Health Sciences,
Naresuan University,
Phitsanulok 65000
Formal translation and cross-cultural adaptationThai translation
Md. Israt Hasan
and Syed Mozaffar Ahmed
Department of Physical Medicine,
Faculty of Medicine, Bangabandhu
Sheikh Mujib Medical University,
Shahbag, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Formal translation and cross-cultural adaptationBangla translation
Link to article-Bangla
Hauron Wambua
student at University of Witswatesrands
South Africa
Formal translation and cross-cultural adaptationSiSwati translation


We are very grateful to our colleagues who have supplied translations. If they have formal qualifications as a translator we have described this as a formal translation. If the validity of the translated tool has been confirmed in a research setting this is also indicated. In the case of an informal translation the person supplying the translation does not have formal qualifications as a translator. As such, Keele University makes no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, as to the completeness, accuracy or reliability of the translated tool for any purpose. Any reliance you place on such translation is strictly at your own risk. In the event of any conflict between the English language version and the translated version, the English language version shall prevail. If you notice any inconsistency, please report it to us by contacting j.hill@keele.ac.uk

How to translate the Keele STarT Back Tool

Important: Do not begin a translation of the Keele STarT Back Tool into any foreign language/s until you have received written permission from the Versus Arthritis UK Primary Care Centre, UK to proceed with the translation

We recommend that anyone wishing to translate the Keele STarT Back Tool read the following: Recommendations for the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Health Status Measures

Please follow the instructions in this document and forward any queries about translating the Keele STarT Back Tool, or new translations to:

Professor Jonathan Hill‌

Professor of Physiotherapy

Director for Research for the School of Allied Health Professionals

School of Medicine

Primary Care Centre Versus Arthritis

Keele University
United Kingdom
+44 (0)1782 73900

When using the tool please ensure the copyright and funding statement is maintained at all times.